Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for computer science and mathematics http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm <h3><strong>Journal of&nbsp; Al-Qadisiyah &nbsp;for computer science and mathematics (JQCM) is scientific journal issued by College of computer Science and Information Technology /University of &nbsp;Al-Qadisiyah&nbsp; since 2009&nbsp;&nbsp;periodically 2 times per year and 4 times per year since 2019, number of issues published sincece journal launched is 15 issues.The date of submission and acceptance of the article has been installed on articles published in Vol( 5)&nbsp; upwards, and the date of&nbsp;</strong><strong>available online&nbsp;</strong><strong>of the&nbsp;article has been installed on articles published in&nbsp;Voll(10)&nbsp;upwards.</strong></h3> <h3><strong><span lang="EN-US">ISSN 2521-3504 (Online), ISSN 2074-0204 (Print)</span></strong></h3> en-US ali.mohsin@qu.edu.iq (Assist .Prof .Dr. Ali Mohsin Al-Juboori , Editor- in –chief) Journalcm@qu.edu.iq (Dr. Alaa Taima Abd Akadhem, Editor- in –Charge) Fri, 02 Dec 2022 11:11:09 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Mining Distributed Data using Vertical Federated Learning Review http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1081 <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Federated Learning was designed to allow collaborative learning without revealing raw data as worries about machine learning privacy grew. Vertical Federated Learning (VFL) may be utilized for a distributed dataset with the same sample ID space but differs in feature space. And may be used in a wide variety of real-world contexts when parties have the same set of samples but only have partial attributes. Achieving privacy will be a result of this technique's capacity.</p> <p>Federated Learning enables different repositories of data to learn a shared model collaboratively and at the same time keep the privacy of each one because of the increasing awareness of large firms compromising on data security and user privacy. To accomplish federated learning, three learning ways were suggested; horizontal federated learning, vertical federated learning, and transfer federated learning.</p> <p>Vertical federated learning was adopted when data were spread among different parties. However, each one has different features from the others for identical objects. This paper is related to this type of federated learning.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>To maximize model performance while maintaining the privacy of dispersed data, we'll create a framework based on vertical federated learning and suitable techniques.</p> MManaaf Abdulredha Yassen, Lamia AbedNoor Muhammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1081 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 07:30:31 +0000 Traffic Load Balancing based on Congestion Avoidance (TLBCA) in high-speed computer networks http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1083 <p>Congestion, and how to manage it or prevent its occurrence, is one of the most crucial and cutting-edge subjects in the world of networks since it has a significant influence on the computer network and the quality of service (QoS). Network efficiency is decreased by congestion, which frequently results in service interruptions. In order to preserve the continuity of data flow in the network, it is necessary to design approaches and processes to avoid congestion or to minimize its effects. Congestion are avoided at two levels, knot and link, by using different techniques, including close loop or open loop. This paper proposed a new technique (TLBCA) to distribute packets arriving at a specific node on the links connected to it, which leads to the same destination, to avoid congestion on one of the links and out of service, which then leads to more load on the other links until the network collapses. TLBCA is based on the popular algorithm Round Robin. ECMP and TinyFlow, the two most widely used comparable algorithms in this sector, performed around 20% worse than the approach when it was simulated using OMNET++.</p> Ahmed Malik Khudhair, Khulood A. Nassar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1083 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 07:41:24 +0000 Neuro-Fuzzy System for Heart Failure Prediction http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1084 <p><em>Heart failure is one of the dangerous heart diseases that infect humans and may cause death. This disease causes damage to the heart muscle, and it becomes unable to pump blood in the body as well as it should. Therefore, the condition of heart failure patients must be predicted as soon as possible in order to help the patients to live longer lives by offering appropriate therapy. Based on that, the aims of this paper are to use medical records to predict the state of a patient with heart failure if he/she will die or not, and extract the important features that have a direct effect on the patient's state. This paper used a dataset of 299 heart failure patients and applied the Neuro-Fuzzy systems (NFS) to this dataset. This prediction is made by testing each two feature together in the dataset and feeding it to the NFS system to determine its effect on the patients. In this paper, the accuracy and confusion matrix is used to evaluate the system's performance. The experimental results show that the system yielded 100% accuracy when the two-feature, serum creatinine and ejection fraction, are tested together, so it can be used alone to predict whether patients with heart failure will survive.</em></p> Wijdan A. Khaleel, Adala M. Chiad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1084 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 07:47:17 +0000 Classification and Diseases Identification of Mango Based on Artificial Intelligence: A Review http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1085 <p>Mango is a drupe fruit which plays an active role in the economy of different countries. Classification process is a fundamental process in: diseases detection domain, sorting and grading. Previously, farmers can detect mango's diseases, identification ripe and unripe mango by their eyes, but it is inaccurate, waste of time and effort. AI technology helping farmers get high quality agricultural crops, the essential idea of AI in agriculture is its flexibility, reliability, speedy performance and applicability. AI technology improves enterprise performance and productivity by automating processes or tasks that once required human skill. AI can also understand data on a scale that no human can achieve, this ability can bring great advantages in the field of agriculture. In this paper, a review for application of artificial intelligence in mango classification and mango diseases identification have been presented.&nbsp;</p> Israa Mohammed Hassoon ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1085 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 07:52:17 +0000 A comparative Study of Image Enhancement Techniques for Natural Images http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1086 <p>Enhancement is most interesting parts in image processing field. It uses to enhance the structural appearance for picture without the degradation in the original input image. The enhancement techniques become the important key and simply extraction features by removing noise and another items inside an image. &nbsp;Several enhancement techniques have achieved with different and inaccurate results.&nbsp; The aim of this paper, the nature images quality was improved by the many enhancement techniques like of Histogram Equalization (HE), Local Histogram Equalization (LHE), Adaptive Histogram Equalization (AHE), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Brightness Preserving Bi-Histogram Equalization (BBHE), Dualistic Sub-Image Histogram Equalization (DSIHE) and Recursive sub-image histogram equalization (RSIHE).&nbsp; In evaluation step, the performance of all these techniques are examined by values measurements of SSIM (Structural Similarity Index Matrix), Entropy, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).&nbsp; The comparisons of the better existing results are given because to explain the best possible technique that can be used as suitable image enhancement. The results of the enhanced of 15 nature images have showed DSIHE technique has a batter a values of SSIM and Entropy with 0.9885 and 59975 respectively. Overall, based on the PSNR and SNR values, the CLAHE technique are recorded values higher than of other six techniques in 21.2952 and 192932 values.</p> Ahmed Naser Ismael ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1086 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 07:56:41 +0000 Finger knuckle recognition, a review on prospects and challenges based on PolyU dataset http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1087 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;In the previous few years, Finger knuckle (Fk) has received a lot of interest as a biometric trait in recent years. It will provide economic human identification performance due to its distinct difference between human-specific alternatives of visible lines, wrinkles, and ridges spread on the surface external of all finger knuckles. The foundation for most biometric systems is Fks. This report presents a thorough analysis of the pertinent Finger knuckle investigations. The foundation for most biometric systems is Fks. The identification system through finger knuckles usually contents of 4 steps, specifically image Acquisition, image preprocessing, feature extraction, and have matched. There are numerous methods used during this research at each level. The paper is likely to highlight these methods used in the PolyU database</p> Dua'a Hamed AL-Janabi, Ali Mohsin AL-Juboori ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1087 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 08:01:43 +0000 Survey of Palm Print Detection Techniques http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1088 <p>Todays, there are various of systems that requires high-level security methods. Due to the sophisticated methods of breaking the traditional security methods. One of the most advanced methods nowadays is handprint validation. Which is based on the features of the palm in hands. These feature could include the lines, valleys, hand texture, and other features. In this work, a survey of the latest works that are used for palm print detection and recognition</p> Noora Hadi Naji, Ali Mohsin Al-Juboor ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1088 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 08:11:15 +0000 The Development and Challenges of Face Alignment: A survey http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1089 <p>Finding the face key-points location or which is also called Face alignment has gotten a lot of interest in the last twenty years because of its wide range of applications in the major of automatic face analysis. Nonetheless, this task has proven an extremely challenging task in an unconstrained environment because of multiple confusing factors, such as occlusions, position, illumination, and expression. However, this task is still an open problem, even though researchers still developing a great many techniques to face the challenges of this problem, in this survey, a critical review of the current literature in the face alignment field had already been presented focusing on those methods tackling the total of this topic's challenges and difficulties under uncontrollable circumstances. Especially, the existing face alignment techniques have been categorized existing referring to more than the type of categorizing. Then represent a survey of the recent related works in face alignment and lastly, we discuss the general steps of the face alignment system.</p> Athman Dhiya Abdulsatar, Ali Mohsin Aljuboori ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1089 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 08:15:45 +0000 Models of Trust and Trusted Computations to an Ad-hoc Network Security http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1090 <p>Ad-hoc networks have unique properties, making it impossible to execute the current existing network security policy successfully. Based on studying the Ad-hoc network, the Cloud Security theory will be applied to it. We apply Direct Blind Authentication theory and trusted computing platform hardware modules to optimize the Ad-hoc networks' authentication links. The program successfully addresses the security concerns of Ad-hoc nodes, strengthening the Ad-hoc network's defenses.</p> Younis Samir Younis, Saad Hussein Abed Hamed, Saleem Meften ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1090 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 08:43:45 +0000 Using Numerical Methods and Graph Theory for Developing Mathematical Models to Estimate Uranium Concentrations http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1091 <p>The research aims to build sports models to find the concentration of uranium in herbs using twelve herbs from medicinal herbs various uses by human use crime methods theory definition and some numerical methods different like Novel and Hermitian where we got mathematical models implicitly through it effect amount uranium herbs, and we got on miniatures mistake percentage almost non-existent.</p> Suha K. Yaseen, Ghassan E. Arif, Nihad Sh. Khalef ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1091 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 09:23:00 +0000 SOLVING VOLTERRA-FREDHOLM INTEGRAL EQUATIONS BY QUADRATIC SPLINE FUNCTION http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1092 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Using the quadratic spline function, this paper finds the numerical solution of mixed Volterra-Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. The proposed method is based on employing the quadratic spline function of the unknown function at an arbitrary point and using the integration method to turn the Volterra-Fredholm integral equation into a system of linear equations with respect to the unknown function. An approximate solution can be easily established by solving the given system. This is accomplished with the help of a computer program that runs on Python 3.9..</p> Sarfraz Hassan Salim, Rostam Karim Saeed, Karwan Hama Faraj Jwamer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1092 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 09:30:55 +0000 Using Logistic Regression Models and Artificial Neural Networks to Study the Factors Affecting the Academic Achievement of University Student http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1093 <p>This study aimed to identify the most important factors affecting the academic achievement of a university student and then build a predictive model using these factors to predict the student's academic status. The ordinal logistic regression method was used to identify the influencing factors, and neural network technique to build the prediction model. It was applied to a sample of 188 students at Al-Yamamah University in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The analyzed data were collected using a questionnaire of three main axes: representing student related factors, family, and academic factors. The results of the logistic regression model showed that 10 variables had a significant effect on the student's academic achievement: age, cumulative average at high school, the distance of residence, work besides studying, daily study hours, frequent absences, fear of exams, the economic level of the family, parents divorce, and family follow-up. As for the MLP network model with architecture (18-28-3), whose inputs were the significant variables chosen by the logistic model, the values of all performance indicators were supportive of the model's quality and predictive ability, where the correct classification rate values in the training data reached 96%, validity 93% and testing 90%. The results of the classification table were also high, with the correct classification of the three categories of the target variable: 100% good, 91.95% fair, 82.35% poor. The total percentage of correct classification was 94.68%. All these indicators confirm the validity and feasibility of using this model as an initial tool for predicting the academic status of a university student.&nbsp;</p> Imad Yagoub Hamid, Abdelgadir Elameen Altaher, Mohammed Theeb Alosaimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1093 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 09:37:06 +0000 Some Properties of The Difference Quadruple Sequences Spaces of Fuzzy Complex Numbers Related to The Space (l_p )^4 Defined by Triple Maximal Orlicz Functions http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1094 <p>In this paper, we present some properties of the difference for quadruple sequences spaces of fuzzy complex numbers related to the space &nbsp;defined by triple maximal Orlicz functions and discuss some properties such as completeness, solidity, monotonicity, symmetric, convergence-freeness, and so on.</p> Aqeel Mohammed Hussein ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1094 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 10:13:06 +0000 On The Statistically Convergent For Quadruple Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Numbers Described by Triple Maximal Orlicz Functions http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1095 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this paper ,we give the statistically convergent for quadruple sequence spaces of fuzzy numbers defined by the triple maximal Orlicz function and shows explore properties such as semi-normed space, complete semi-normed space, and others</p> Aqeel Mohammed Hussein ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1095 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 10:19:47 +0000 Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm Based on New Fitness Strategy for Multi Objective Knapsack Problem http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1096 <p>problems. Many different experiments have shown that the evolutionary algorithm Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2) outperforms other approaches, and this makes it an excellent candidate for inclusion in the final design. According to Strength, one of SPEA2's core concepts, the population is sorted into niches based on the Pareto Front idea. With regard to outcomes this technique has a flaw that is mitigated by adding a fitness density estimator. Weakness in Strength is addressed with an approach called Strength by objective<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">,</span> which aims to include solution who do not dominate or are dominated by others inside the process.&nbsp; In this paper, the results will show a clear superiority of the proposed method comparing with the original method in solving the multi-objective Knapsack problem using three sizes of the Knapsack and the problem size of 750 items which is generated randomly. The comparison results between the proposed method and the other algorithms show outperformance of the Proposed algorithm using the dominance inductor showed the superiority of the proposed algorithm by a percentage of more than 1 %, Thanks to a highly diverse population and the inclusion of solutions that can be improved, the (SPEA2) algorithm's performance has been vastly enhanced by the Objective sorting mechanism</p> Muna Shaker Salman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1096 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 10:31:27 +0000 A Study of Hausdorff Measure in Fuzzy Soft Metric Spaces http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1097 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In fields such as mathematics, statistics, computer science, etc., the theory of fuzzy metric spaces is crucial. In this work, a new significant&nbsp; characteristics of the space of fuzzy soft metric are presented, following Kider's (2020) proposal of the fuzzy soft metric model. furthermore, to study hyperspaces in terms of this specific fuzzy soft metric notion. A fuzzy soft distance between two fuzzy soft compact sets is created. A formulation has been proposed for establishing a Hausdorff fuzzy soft metric on the collection of non-empty fuzzy soft compact subsets. Additionally, a variety of essential features of the Hausdorff fuzzy soft metric concept are described.</p> Mayada N. Mohammedali, Fatema Ahmad Sadiq, Raghad I. Sabri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1097 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 10:41:48 +0000 A new Application of Assignment Problems Using Three Techniques with it Comparison http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1098 <p>The assignment models are one of the effective operations research techniques for enhancing the educational process and obtaining the desired learning outcomes. Universities organize the criteria for distributing accepted students in accordance with the central admission plan issued by the Ministry of Higher Education to their departments based on of the student’s qualifications represented in the total of his grades in the general examinations for secondary studies as a criterion that qualifies him to compete with other students, in addition to the student’s choices and the department plan. In this paper, we discuss the assignment problem (AP) in the allocation of students to college departments depending on the degree of comparison. Three techniques of assignment problem were used, namely; the Hungarian technique, the Alternative technique, and the new technique presented by Haleemah Jawad Kadhim in 2021, to find the best allocation</p> Fatema A. Sadiq, Mayada N. Mohammedali, Raghad I. Sabri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://qu.edu.iq/journalcm/index.php/journalcm/article/view/1098 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 10:48:39 +0000