Isolation and identification of Salmonella serotypes in poultry

  • Batool Kadhim Meteab Department of Pathology and Poultry Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
  • Alaa Abdul Aziz Abed Department of pathology and poultry diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq


 Our study was designed to investigate the prevailing serotypes of Salmonella in chickens and the rate of isolation of each serotype. Between 27 September 2014 and 15 February 2015, a total of 200 samples were collected from cloacal swabs and cecal contents from different sources and ages at Al-Diwaniyah Province. The bacterial culture was carried out by using different culture media such as Salmonella-Shigella agar (SS), Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar (XLD) and Chrome agar Salmonella (CAS), the serotype was determined by confirmative bio-chemical essays using the Vitek-2 system. The current study was able to identify three serotypes as following: S. enteritidis, S. Paratyphi B and S. typhimurium with isolation rate of 10%, 6.5%, and 4.5% respectively.


1-Callaway TR, Edrington TS, Anderson RC, Byrd JA, Nisbet DJ (2008). Gastrointestinal microbial ecology & the safety of our food supply as related to salmonella j. of American society of animal science 86 (E. suppl) E163-E172
2-Cardinale E, Gross-Claude J, Rivoal K, Rose V, Tall F, Mead G, Salvat G. Epidemiological analysis of Salmonella enterica spp. serovar Hadar, Brancater and Enteriditis in humans and broilers chicken in Senegal using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and antibiotic susceptibility. Journal of Food Protection. (2005); 60:1312-1317.
3-Pui CF, Wong WC, Chai lC, Tunung R, Jeyaletchum P, Noor Hidayha MS, Ubong A, Farinazleen MG, Cheah YK, and Son R. Salmonella: A foodborne pathogen. International Food Research Journal. (2011); 18 :( 3) 465-473.
4-Carter GR, Wise J (2004). Essentials of Veterinary Bacteriology and Microbiology. 6th (ed.). Blackwell, publishing.
5-Saeed AA, Hasoon MF, Mohammed MH. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Salmonella typhimurium from Chicken Meat in Iraq. J. World's Poult. Res. (2013); 3(2): 63-67.
6-Paterson PH, Love BC, Shaw DP (2009). Probiotic/Antibiotic shuttle programs for salmonella reduction in commercial leghorn. Coll. of Agri. & Poult. Sci., Pennsylvania State
7-Kimura AC, Reddy V, Marcus R, Cieslak PR, Mohle-Boetani JC, Kassenborg HD, Segler SD, Hardnett FP, Barrett T, Swerdlow DL. Chicken consumption is a newly identified risk factor for sporadic salmonella enteric serotype enteritidis infections in the United States; A control study in foodnet sites. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2004); 38: S244-S252.
8-Kottwiz LBM, Oliveira TCRM, Alcocer I, Farah SMSS, Abrahao WSM, Rodrigues DP. Avalicao epidemiologyical de surtos de salmonelose ocorridos no periodo de 1999 a 2008 no estado do Parana, Brazil. Acta Scientia (2010); 32:9-15.
9-Hald T, Vose D, Wegener HC, Koupeev T. A Bayesian Approach to Quantify the Contribution of Animal-Food Sources to Human Salmonellosis. Risk Analysis. (2004); 24:1, 255-269.
10-Abd El-Aziz DM. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in retail chicken meat and chicken giblets. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. (2013); 3: (9) 678-681.
11-Modarressi S, Kwai LT. Isolation and molecular sub typing of Salmonella Enterica from chicken, beef and street foods in Malaysia. Scientific Research and Essays. (2010); (18), 2713-2720.
12-Center for Disease Control, CDC (1999). Salmonella surveillance: annual tabulation summary, 1998.U.S.Department of Health and Human Services CDC, Atlanta.
13-Vernam AHS (1991). Food-Borne Pathogens. Wolf Publishing Ltd, London, pp: 51-55.
14-Al-Chalabi ZA, Abdul-Aziz A, and Mahdi NR.The Effect of Baytril against Salmonella london Infection in Chickens. Iraqi J. Vet. Med. (2005); 29, 1, 196-201.
15-Al-Khazraji AA (1994). The use of cecal contents and fecal materials for the control of paratyphoid infection in broiler chickens. A thesis submitted to the Coll. Vet.Med., University of Baghdad.
16-David HP (2014). Microbial identification using the biomerieux Vitek 2 system.Inc. Hazelwood, MO, USA.
17-Leech NL, Barrett KC, Morgan GA (2011). IBM SPSS for Intermediate statistics. 4th ed . Taylor and Francis Group. LLC. USA.
18-Aryal S (2016). Salmonella Shigella (SS) Agar- Composition, Principle, Uses, Preparation and Result Interpretation.
19-Aryal S (2015). Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) Agar. Principle, Uses, Composition, Preparation and Colony Characteristics.
20-Ruiz J, Nunez M L, Diaz J, Lorente I, Perez J, Gomez J. Comparison of five plating media for isolation of Salmonella species from human stools. J Clin Microbiol. (1996); 34:686–688.
21-Anonymous. Chromogenic Media, Scharlab manual, Lab Sourcing Group, Scharlau Chemie SA.
22-Carli KT, Eyigor A, and Caner V (2001). Prevalence of Salmonella serovars in chickens in Turkey. J. Food Protect. 64: 1832-1835.
23-Al-Matar AH, Shawabkeh Kh, Zakaria H. Prevalence of Salmonella in Broiler Chicken Carcasses in Jordan. Studies, Agricultural Sciences, (2005); 32:2,267-271
24-Nisafi A, Abdelaziz F. Latent Salmonella infection in poultry as a source of food poisoning for humans. J. Stud. Sci. Research, (2006); 28(1): 55-65.
25-Jafari RA, Ghorbanpour M, and Jaideri A. An investigation into Salmonella infection status in backyard chickens in Iran. Inter J. Poult. Sci., (2007); 6 (3): 227-229.
26-Sadeghi E, Almasi A, Rashidi AA, Oscoii SB. Isolation Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from poultry meat in Kermanshah using PCR method. Kermanshah Med. J. Sci., (2010); 1388.11-13.
27-Ozbey G, Ertas HB. Salmonella Spp. isolation from chicken samples and identification by polymerase chain reaction. Bulg. J. Vet. Med., (2005); 9 (1): 67-73.
28-Aabo S, Christensen JP, Chadfield MS, Carstensen B, Olsen JE, Bisgaard M. Quantitative comparison of intestinal invasion of zoonotic serotypes of Salmonella enterica in poultry. Avian Pathol., (2002); 31:41-47.
29-Van Pelt W, Van der Zee H, Wannet WJ, Van de Giessen AW, Mevius DJ, Bolder NM, Komijn RE, Van Duynhoven THP. Explosive increase in Salmonella java in poultry in the Netherlands. Consequences for public health. Euro. Communi. Dis. Bullet., (2003); (2) 31-35.
30-European Food Safety Authority, EFSA (2010). Analysis of the Baseline Survey on the Prevalence of Campylobacter in Broiler Batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on Broiler Carcasses in the EU, 2008, Part A; Campylobacter and Salmonella Prevalence Estimates. EFSA. J., 8,.3,. 1503.
31-Paiao FG, Arisitides LGA, Murate LS, Vilas-Boas GT, Vilss-Boas LA, Shimokomaki M. Detection of Sallmonella SPP, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected brioler chickens by multiplex PCR- based assay. Brazil. J. Microbiol., (2013); 44: (1) 37-41.
32-Al-Abadi IKM, Al- MayahAAS. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. from chicken andchicken environment in Basrah province. Iraqi Poultry Sciences Journal (2102); 2: 6, 99 - 88.
33-Abed AAA, Jassim NS Abdulreza S (2014). Serological study of Salmonella in pigeons. Researches of 2ndScientific Conference of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kufa.
34-Ahmed MT, Islam M, Haider G, Hossain MM. Sero-prevalence and pathology of naturally infected Salmonellosis in poultry with isolation and identification of causal agents. J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ., (2008); 6: (2) 327- 334.
35-Orji MU, Onuigbo HC, Mbata TI. Isolation of Salmonella from poultry droppings and other environmental sources in Awka, Nigeria. International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2005);9: 86-89.
36-Waite JG, Yousef AE. Overview of Food Safety, In: Processing Effects on Safety and Quality of Foods, E Ortega-Rivas, (Ed.), 11-65, CRC Press, ISBN. (2010); 978-1-4200-6112-3, Boca Raton, FL.