Histological evaluation of camel colostrum extracts effects as a new biological therapy on auricular cartilage defect healing.

  • Amir I. Towfik Arabian Horses Center, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq


The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of camel colostrum extracts on auricular cartilage defect healing. Iraqi camel colostrum were collected post-parturition at 0, 6 hours, double centrifuged, filtrated and refrigerated until use. Fifteen albino rats were divided randomly into 3 groups;(TG1) treated with colostrum collected directly after birth, (TG2) treated with colostrum collected 6 hours post-parturition, and (TG3) treated with normal saline. Under routine surgical approach, holes were done in their ear cartilages. The diameter of the holes were measured daily for one week. Biopsies were taken at 1, 2, 3 weeks for histological evaluation of cartilages healing.  (TG1) showed the superiority of histological evaluation by complete healing between the two edges of chondrocytes in the site of defect, profuse fibrosis with formation of new blood vessels and mild infiltration of inflammatory cells. The results demonstrated that, the camel colostrum extracts had a beneficial therapeutic effects on cartilage defects, which might regarded as a new biological therapy.


1-Shieh SJ, Terada S, Vacanti JP. Tissue engineering auricular reconstruction in vitro and in vivo studies. Biomaterials (2004); 25: 1545-1557.
2-Yanaga H, Imai K, Koga M, Yanaga K. Cell- engineered human elastic chondrocytes regenerate natural scaffold in vitro and neocartilage with neoperichondrium in the human body post- transplantation. Tissue Eng. Pt A18: (2012); 2020-2029.
3-Zeineb J, Nadia O, Isabelle A, Touhami k, Pascal D, Halima El-H . Camel colostrum: Nutritional composition and improvement of the antimicrobial. Emir. J. Food Agric. (2015); 27(4): 384-389.
4-Azwai SM, Carter SD, Woldehiwet Z. Immunoglobulins of Camel (Camelusdromedarius) colostrum. J. Comp. Pathol. (1996); 114:273-282.
5-Hamers-Casterman C, Atahouch T, Muyldermans S, Robinson G, Hamers C, Songa EB, Bendahman N, Hamers R. Naturally-occuring antibodies devoid of light chains. Nature. (1993); 363:446-448.
6-Mao AS, Mooney DJ. Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions. PNAS (2015); 112 (47) 14452-14459.
7-Darland DC, D’Amore PA. Blood vessel maturation: Vascular development comes of age. J Clin Invest (1999); 103(2):157–158.
8-Conway EM, Collen D, Carmeliet P. Molecular mechanisms of blood vessel growth. Cardiovasc Res (2001); 49(3):507–521.
9-Naumann A, Dennis JE, Aigner J, Coticchia J, Arnold J, et al. Tissue engineering of autologous cartilage grafts in three-dimensional in vitro macroaggregate culture system. Tissue Eng (2004); 10: 1695–1706.
10-Cao Y, Vacanti JP, Paige KT, Upton J, Vacanti CA. Transplantation of chondrocytes utilizing a polymer-cell construct to produce tissue-engineered cartilage in the shape of a human ear. Plast Reconstr Surg (1997); 100: 297–302.
11-Hellingman CA, Verwiel ETP, Slagt I, Koevoet W, Poublon RML, et al. . Differences in cartilage-forming capacity of expanded human chondrocytes from ear, nose, and their gene expression profiles. Cell Transplant (2011); 20: 925–940.
12-Madsen K, Moskalewski S, Mark von der K, Friberg U. Synthesis of proteoglycans, collagen, and elastin by cultures of rabbit auricular chondrocytes—relation to age of the donor. DevBiol(1983); 96: 63-73.
13-Ahsan T, Sah R. Biomechanics of integrative cartilage repair. Osteoarthritis Cart. .(1999) 7:29-40.
14-Verwoerd-Verhoef HL, Ten Koppel PG, Van Osch GJ, Meeuwis CA, Verwoerd CD Wound healing of cartilage structures in the head and neck region. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol (1998); 43:241-51.
15-Boumediene K, Conrozier T, Mathieu P, Richard M, Marcelli C, Vignon E, Pujol JP. Decrease of cartilage transforming growth factor-beta receptor II expression in the rabbit experimental osteoarthritis-potential role in cartilage breakdown. Osteoarthritis Cart (1998); 6:146-9.
16-Deuraseh, NThe urine of camels. Treatment of diseases in AL-Tibb Al-Nabawi. Int. Med. J., (2005) 4 (1): 25-28.
17-Bos PK, Van Osch GJVM, Frenzt DA, Verhaar JAN, Verwoerd-Verhoef HL Growth factor expression in cartilage wound healing:temporal and spatial immunolocalization in a rabbit auricular cartilage wound model. Osteoarthritis and Cart. (2001); 9:382-389.
18-Sah RL, Kim YJ, Doong JY, Grodzinsky AJ, Plaas AH, Sandy JD Biosynthetic response of cartilage explants to dynamic compression. J. Orthop. Res. (1989); 7:619-36.
19-Conesa C L, Sanchez C, Rota MD, Pérez M. Calvo S. Farnaud RW Ewans. Isolation of lactoferrin from milk of different species: Calorimetric and antimicrobial studies. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. (2008); 150:131-139.