Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture Sciences (QJAS) (P-ISSN: 2077-5822 , E-ISSN: 2617-1479) <p>Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture&nbsp;Sciences (QJAS) is being published by college of Agriculture 2011 and is funded by University of Al-Qadisiyah . The journal reports original research findings of local and foreign scientists working in various research disciplines of agriculture and its allied sectors like livestock, fisheries, forestry ,the science of cultivating the soil, biology and fertility of soils, and harvesting crops , etc.</p> <p>Reviews on important disciplines of agricultural research&nbsp; and was launched online during 2017 with free open access journal to users. All the content is regularly peer reviewed before publication whereas the index is checked through anti-plagiarism software 'Turnitin'. It is also being indexed in national and international databases/resources .</p> <p>From 2017, all papers submitted to the journal should be written in good English. Authors for whom English is not their native language are encouraged to have their paper checked before submission for grammar and clarity.The work should not have been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. The official language of the manuscript to be published in Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Agriculture&nbsp;Sciences (QJAS)&nbsp; is English.</p> <p>The international number of&nbsp;QJAS are :<br><strong>PISSN 2077-5822</strong><br><strong>EISSN 2617-1479</strong></p> <p><strong>Subject Areas</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Field Crops.</li> <li class="show">Plant Breeding.</li> <li class="show">Agricultural Economics.</li> <li class="show">Agricultural Extension.</li> <li class="show">Agricultural Mechanization.</li> <li class="show">Basic sciences.</li> <li class="show">Hort. Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Animal Husbandry.</li> <li class="show">Food Technology, Plant Pathology.</li> <li class="show">Plant Entomology.</li> <li class="show">Poultry Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Soil Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Water Resources.</li> <li class="show">Veterinary.</li> <li class="show">Biology.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Copyright / Open Access</strong></p> <p>Articles published in Agriculture will be Open-Access articles distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s).<span style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</span></p> <h5 style="text-align: justify;">Copyright / Open AccessArticles published in Agriculture will be Open-Access articles distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The copyright is retained by the author(s).</h5> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>1. The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to Al-Qadisiyah Journal For Agriculture scinces (QJAS), University of Al-Qadisiyah as publisher of the journal.</p> <p>2. Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc. , will be allowed only with a written permission from&nbsp; Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Agriculture&nbsp;Scienses (QJAS), University of Al-Qadisiyah.</p> <p>&nbsp;3. Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Agriculture&nbsp;Scienses (QJAS) , University of Al-Qadisiyah, the Editors and the Advisory International Editorial Board make every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the journal Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Agriculture&nbsp;Scienses (QJAS), University of Al-Qadisiyah are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.</p> (Prof.Dr. Allawi Luaibi Dagher Al-Khauzai) (Dr. Mohammed Ahmed Mohammed) Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Developmentofin-vitroSensitivityTestingforPathogenicBacteria <h5>Anewmethod developed for&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>susceptibility test in medicall aboratoriesconsistofmicrotubesorglovescontainingdehydratedtrypticsoyabroth,5%glucose,0.1%bromothymolblueandonetypeofantibiotics(ampicillin,tetracyclineandchloramphenicol)withcriticalconcentrationMIC(minimuminhibitoryconcentration)forsusceptibility.Standardqualitycontrolstrainsofbacterial(<em>Escherichiacoli</em>,<em>Staphylococcusaureus</em>and<em>Pseudomonasaeruginosa</em>)suspensionwereadjustedto0.5McFarlandturbiditystandard(1×10<sup>6</sup>cell/mL)wereusedininoculationthemediaandincubatedtwohoursat37°C.TheMICofampicillinagainst<em>E.coli</em>,<em>S.aureus</em>,and<em>P.aeruginosa</em>were4,32,and256µg/mLofthemediaforthebacteriarespectively,whiletheMICoftetracyclineagainstbacteriawere512,512and32µg/mLrespectively,theMICofchloramphenicolwere512,32and512µg/mL,respectively.Where,theresistantbacteriatotheantibioticscouldgrowandfermentglucosesugarproducingacolorchangeofthemediafrombluetoyellow,whilethesensitivebacteriadonotgroworshownochangeincolor.Ourstudyresultcomparedwithcommonusedantibioticdiskmethodobtainingsimilarresults.Thisdevelopedmethodcharacterizedbyfast(onlytwohours)andlesscostincomparisontoconventionaltechnique.Thenewmicrotubestripishighlystable(morethanoneyear)withmoresensitiveindetectionofvariablepathogenicbacteriaincludingstandardbacteriastrainscomparedwithconventionaltechnique.</h5> Fouad Houssein Kamel, Chiman Hameed Saeed, Ashti M.Amin, Saleem Saaed Qader ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Thermodynemic Parameter son the Rlationship Between Exchangeable Sodium Percentage and Sodium Adsorption Ratioin Saline Soilof Iraq Central <h5 style="text-align: left;">The study was conducted to determine the relationship between the exchangeable sodium percentage ESP and sodium adsorption ratio SAR in the soil solution. Some saline affected soils were selected at the locations Yosifya, Muwayliha, Imam, Eychreesh, Mahaweel, Ejbalah, Abe-Ghragg, Kifil, Elseneya and Eldagharaah. Using thermodynamic criteria to recalculate throught description quantitative concepts rather than analytical.The results indicate that the values ​​of SAR range from 0.96 - 26.80 (cmol Kg-¹)º<sup>·5</sup> of the studied sites and this ratio increased when taking into account free ions 3.52 - 32.7 (cmol Kg-¹)º<sup>·5</sup>. The ESP Calculated laboratory was (2.0 - 9.0 %) and all of these were less than ESP % according to laboratory salinity accounts, and generally show increase in the values ​​of the proportion of ESP with increased SAR according to the approved indicators. The probability of these soils turning into sodic is unlikely to decrease pH and HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-¹ </sup>values ​​and increase concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions.</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">The statistical results indicated that in order to predict soil ESP based on soil SAR the linear regression model for predicting soil ESP from SAR. ESP=1.95+1.05SAR with R²=0.92 can be recommended.</h5> Safa Mahdi Abdul Kadium ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Organic Acids on Phosphorus Fractions in Silty Clay Loam Soil <h5 style="text-align: left;">This study was conducted to evaluation the role of the organic acids in the phosphorus fractions in silty clay loam texture. The laboratoryexperiment was conducted by adding the organic acids (Humic acid ,Citric acid ,Oxalic acid , Malic acid ,Acetic acid and Lactic acid )to the fertilized soil with conc. super phosphate fertilizer with 100 kg h<sup>-1</sup> level with concentrations (0,15,30,45 and60)mg L<sup>-1</sup>,except Humic acid (500,1000,1500 and 2000) mg L<sup>-1</sup>.The soil was incubated at 30 C for 14,28,42,56 and 70 days period and the keep of field capacity about of incubation period during the daily weight.Amount of available ,mineral ,organic and total phosphorus after each incubated period were measured. The results showed that theaddition of organic acids of Humic acid ,Citric acid ,Oxalic acid and Malic acid were caused to increaseamount of available ,mineral ,organic and constant of total phosphorus in fertilized soil with conc. super phosphate fertilizer and increased its amount with increasing of organic acid concentration and better of Humic acid 2000mg L<sup>-1</sup> significanton all the treatments .The results of the study that theaddition of organic acids were caused to increase amount of available and mineral phosphorus with increasing of incubation period and constant amount of total phosphorus and decreasing of organic phosphorus amount and available for only soil and only fertilizer treatment during increasing of incubation period .The organic acids can be arranged according to its ability toincrease the availabilityof the phosphorus as follow :</h5> Abdulmahdi S.ALansari, Muhammad M.Yassin, Mahdi W.Seheib ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Soil Depth and Rivers Slopon Total Boron Content in Some of The Iraqi Provinces <h5 style="text-align: left;">Aiming to study effects of soil depth and rivers slop on total boron concentration inMiddle Euphrates River Reion that represent in the sedimentary plain, soil pedon samples of cultivated territory that adjacent to rivers were taken. Theseregions are located in provinces of Karbala, Babylon, Najaf, Diwaniyah, and Al-Muthana. Ten soil pedon were taken of soils that adjacent to the main Euphrates River, the Al-Hilaa, and the AL-Daghara Rivers in these provinces. Soil pedon of soils that on the banks or close to the main Euphrates River were taken of counties of Twarije, Kufa, Gamas, and Al-Samawa. In the same way, soil pedon of Missaib, Hashmiah, Diwaniyah, and Rumitha are adjacent to the Hilla River and soil pedon of Al-Daghara and Affak belongs to the area of Al-Daghara River. Results show a reduction in total boron concentration for all of the tested soil pedon directly related with the depth. Aggregate boron concentration values are the highest at the surface layer and reduce as going depth except for soils of Al-Samawa and Al-Rumitha. Total boron concentration values are fluctuated between 1.033 mg. kg<sup>-1</sup> and 14.658 mg. kg<sup>-1 in all of the studied soils. the results showed too the total boron values are not conducted with the tourmaline mineral percent in all sites</sup></h5> Raid Shaalan Jarallah, Bahaa Hussein Fadel Al-mayaly ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Improve the Growth and Yield of Figs by Foliar Nutrition at Post-Harvest <h5 style="text-align: left;">A factorial experiment was carried out by spraying the fig (<em>Ficus carica</em> L.) trees cv. Aswad&nbsp; Diyala at post-harvest in the 2014 and 2015 seasons, in one orchards of Diwaniyah city/ Iraq, with two liquid fertilizers: Azomin and Prosol at 3 levels (0, 3 and 6) g.l<sup>-1</sup> and (0, 2 and 4) g.l<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The results showed that third level of both fertilizers gave The widest leaf area:{(5.53, 6.42) and (5.52 , 6.38)}m<sup>2</sup>.tree<sup>-1</sup>, highest leaf content of chlorophyll{(131.63 ,132.55), (132.63 , 130.93)}mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>more N percent of leaf {(2.12 , 2.11) ,(2.31, 2.34)}%, highest carbohydrates percent of leaf {(14.65 , 15.10) , (14.83, 15.02)}%, for compounds and seasons, respectively. As for the crop that took place in the 2015 and 2016 seasons gave the highest yield{(20.50, 21.66) (20.80, 21.30)}kg.tree<sup>-1</sup>, most level of K in the fruit{(280.10, 272.70), (292.40, 288.10)}mg.100g<sup>-1</sup> and highest content of anthocyanin{(512.10, 519.90), (482.90, 494.50)} mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>. There was a significant interaction between the experimental factors, which reached a peak in the third level, in the leaf area in the 2014 and 2015 seasons (5.85 and 6.86) m<sup>2</sup>.tree<sup>-1</sup>, and the anthocyanin in the 2015 and 2016 seasons in fruit (518.20 and 534.80) mg.100g<sup>-1</sup>, respectively.</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">It can be concluded that the post-harvest spraying of Aswad Diyala cv., with the, Azomin and Prosol at the levels of 6 and 4g.l<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, gave the best results</h5> Khalid Jameel Shamkhi, Jawad Abed Al-Kadhim Kamal, Luma Salih Jabbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Bio Fertilizer in Reduction of Irrigation Periodsfor the Yield and Components of Mung Bean <h5 style="text-align: left;">A field study has been conducted during autumn season of&nbsp; 2016 at Karbala province of&nbsp; Hindiaby mung bean plant <em>Vigna radiate</em> L. is a local category to study the interrelated effect of both the Mycorrhiza&nbsp; fungi (<em>Glomusmosseae</em>(and the Rhizobia bacteria (<em>R.leguminosarum</em>)Under levels of water stress. Three treatments of irrigation are used ; (S1 irrigation every 5 days and S2 irrigation every 10 days and S3 irrigation every 15 days) and four levels of Bio fertilizer are used (without inoculation) (C<sub>0</sub>)and (<em>Rhizobium</em> inoculation) (R) and (mycorrhiza inoculation)(M) and (the interaction between mycorrhiza and <em>Rhizobium</em>) (M+R).&nbsp; A split plot in randomized complete block design is used with three replications to do this experiment. Treatments of irrigation are used as main plots while Bio fertilizer levels are used as sub-plot. Least significant difference (LSD) at 5% probability is used to compare between the means.</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">&nbsp;&nbsp; The results showed irrigation every 5 days (S1) was superior in having&nbsp; the highest average of (The dry weight of the root, number of pod per plant, number of&nbsp; seeds per pod ,100 seeds weight ,seed yield ,Biological yield) Amount(0.78 gm. Plant<sup>-1</sup>, 31.33 pods. Plant<sup>-1</sup> , 8.45 seed .pod<sup>-1</sup> , 3.82 gm ,3.77 &nbsp;tan .ha<sup>-1</sup> , 7.37tan .ha<sup>-1</sup>) respectively. without significant difference between them treatmentof irrigation 10 days (S2) in 100-seed weight3.50 &nbsp;gm. Moreover treatment Bio fertilizer (R+M) significantly gives the highest means for yield and yield components (0.89 gm. Plant<sup>-1</sup>, 33.64pods. Plant<sup>-1</sup>, 8.42 &nbsp;seed .pod<sup>-1</sup>, 4.10 gm , 4.00 tan .ha<sup>-1</sup>, 7.70 tan .ha<sup>-1</sup>) respectively. The interaction among (R+M)S1,(R+M)S2 and(M)S1 significantly give the highest means for all plant characteristics</h5> Jawad Abed Al-Kadhim Kamal, Maytham Abbas Jawad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Re Extrapolation For The Iraq Marshes Which Falling Within The World Heritage List(A Literature Review) <h5 style="text-align: left;">The Mesopotamian Marshlands or The Garden of Eden, lies in the southern part of Iraq with estimated area of 15000-20000 km<sup>2</sup>. Historically, the area had pioneering role in the human civilization for over 5000 years. The indigenous people of the area are called “Marsh Arabs” or “Ma’dan” who are the descendants of the Sumerians and Semitic people. The former Iraqi regime (Saddam Hussein) had violently led an aggressive campaign to drain the marshes in 1991. Only %7 of the total area survived this campaign, which caused a mass destruction of the ecosystem and dwellers’ displacement. In 2003, water started to flow back to the area. Yet, the reflooding did not restore the whole former area of the wetlands. Moreover, the new ecosystem influenced the diversity and characteristics of the co-existing species in the area. In 2016, due to the importance of the Mesopotamian Marshlands, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) listed three marshes from the area as World Heritage Sites requiring conservation, namely: Hammar, Hwezeh and Central Marshes. The aim of this study is to re-evaluate the ecosystem of those three sites from a biological perspective by examining some challenges that should be dealt with to restore stability to this multi-thousand-year-old system</h5> Kadhim J.L. Al-Zaidy, Giuliana Parisi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The EffectStudy of Different Levels of Rapeseed Meal on Some Productive and Physiological Characteristics in Broiler Chickens <h5 style="text-align: left;">This study was conducted to assess the effect of different ratio of Rapeseed meal on some productive and physiological characteristics in Broiler chickens</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">This study include 63 bird sample with age of 21 days that had been divided into 3 groups treatment with (control (C) 0% , T1 5%, T2 10% ) of Rapeseed meal respectively and each group included to three replication . The poultry dietary and water were supplied freely in front of birds during whole study period . The results were as follow :</h5> <ul style="text-align: left;"> <li> <h5>There was no significant differences in bird weight in all treatments. And there was significant decrease in feed intake and significant increase in feed conversion ratio (FCR) in T2 in comparison with (C , T1)</h5> </li> <li> <h5>There was no significant differences in uric acid serum concentration for all groups and significant increase in serum cholesterol in T2 in comparison with (C , T1). There were significant differences between all groups in serum glucose level. There was significant decrease in serum glucose level by increase the Rapeseed meal ratio (5%, 10%) respectively in comparison with control .</h5> </li> </ul> <h5 style="text-align: left;">According to results , it could be used Rapeseed meal with 10 % ratio in Broiler chickens feed that gives the best FCR</h5> Hayder Ghazi Abdul Shaheed AL-Fatlawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Sex of Birth and Stage of Lactation on Milk Production and Its Components in the Holstein-FriesianCows <h5 style="text-align: left;">This study was conducted on data which&nbsp; collected from the filed Cattle in the college&nbsp; of Agriculture / University of Baghdad for the period from 1/7/2013 to 1/10/2013, which included 28 cows of Holstein <strong>Friesian</strong> to show the effect of sex of birth and the stage of lactation on Milk production&nbsp; and&nbsp; the main components. Our results showed The highest average milk production for female foster cows recorded in the first week with a value of 233L . The results show that had no significant effect&nbsp; of sex of birth on milk production&nbsp; and&nbsp; the main components. The results&nbsp; showed&nbsp; that the highest values ​​of milk fat, lactose and minerals in the seventh week of <strong>lactation</strong>, which values ​​were (3.559, 4.337and 0.638%) respectively, while the highest protein value was recorded in the third week (2.821%). There was no significant interaction&nbsp; among chemical components&nbsp; and stage of lactation , despite the superiority of the milk of female foster cows on the milk of male foster cows in some traits</h5> Raed Kawkab Al-Muhja ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Pre-Incubation And Storage Period on Some hatching Traits for Broiler Breeder Eggs <h5 style="text-align: left;">A total of 1800 broiler breeder , Ross 308 at 47 wks old ,&nbsp; hatching eggs .Were used in the present study . Eggs were randomly distributed into 12 experimental treatments ,150 eggs pretreatment groups . The treatment groups were as follows :</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T1 treatment without pre-incubation + 4 days eggs storage period</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T2 treatment without pre-incubation + 8 days eggs storage period</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T3 treatment without pre-incubation + 12 days eggs storage period</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T4 treatment 4 hours&nbsp; pre-incubation + 4 days eggs storage period</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T5 treatment 4 hours&nbsp; pre-incubation + 8 days eggs storage period</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T6 treatment 4 hours&nbsp; pre-incubation + 12 days eggs storage period</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T7 treatment 8 hours&nbsp; pre-incubation + 4 days eggs storage period</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T8 treatment 8 hours&nbsp; pre-incubation + 8 days eggs storage period</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T9 treatment 8 hours&nbsp; pre-incubation + 12 days eggs storage period</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T10 treatment 12 hours&nbsp; pre-incubation + 4 days eggs storage period.</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T11 treatment 12 hours&nbsp; pre-incubation +8 days eggs storage period</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">T12 treatment 12 hours&nbsp; pre-incubation + 12 days eggs storage period.</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">Experimental parameters measured included : Fertility , hatchability percentage&nbsp; from the total incubated eggs and from fertile eggs , hatching chicks length , weekly embryonic mortality ,piped eggs and quality evaluation of navel for hatching chicks .</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">The results of this study showed a significant increase (P &lt;0.05) in the rate of early embryonic mortality of the treatment which was pre- incubated for 8 hours and stored for 12 days compared to the treatment that was unpre-incubated and stored for 4 days, medium embryonic mortality&nbsp; increased to a treatment which was pre-incubated for 8 hours and stored for 12 days compared to the treatment that was&nbsp; pre-incubated for 8 hours and was stored for 4 days , the rate of piped eggs was significantly (P&lt;0.05) increased to the treatment 4 hours pre-incubated&nbsp; x 12 days storage compared to most others treatments. The percentage of hatched chicks its have the navel type A significantly (P&lt;0.05)&nbsp; increased for the treatment 4 hours × 4 days compared to the treatment 12 hour × 12 days , while significantly (P&lt;0.05) decrease the percentage of&nbsp; hatched chicks type&nbsp; navel&nbsp; B for treatment 0 hour × 4 days compared to the treatment 12 hour × 12 days , either quality type C It has significantly (P&lt;0.05) &nbsp;decreased for both treatments 4 hour ×4 days and 4 hour ×8 days compared to the treatment 12 hour × 12 days</h5> Mahdi S. Mohammad, Basil M. Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence Rate of Isolated Cryptosporidium Spp. of Broiler Chickenin Al-Qadisiyah Province <h5 style="text-align: left;">This study has been carried out to determined the prevalence rate of cryptosporidiosis in broiler flocks. 150 fecal samples from 30 broiler flocks (5 samples for each flock) in different areas of AL-Qadisiyah province were used. They were collected starting of January till November 2016 with two age groups of chickens, (10-15 and 30-35) days old. Samples were examined with Modified Ziel -Neelsen stain to detect the positive samples by microscopic examination. After that, a nested-PCR technique was performed on 60 samples. Results of microscopic examination showed that total infection rate of <em>Cryptosporidium </em>was29.33% . The highest rates of infection were recorded in 10-15 days group and during spring season, infection rates reached were 35.71% and 34.28% respectively. The lowest rates were observed in 30-35 days group and during&nbsp; summer season were 23.75% and 20% respectively. No significant differences within percentage in both two age group or among percentage in seasonsat level (P &lt; 0.05) were recorded.&nbsp; According to Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction test, the results showed that overall percentage of infection is20%. The highest rate of observed infection is 23.33% in 10-15 days aged group, while the lowest rate of infection is (16.67 %) in the other age. No significant differences was observed between percentage in ages. On the other hand, result of&nbsp; comparing nested-PCR test with microscopic examination shows that there are no significant differences between the percentage of both tests.</h5> <h5 style="text-align: left;">In conclusion, cryptosporidiosis is widespread in broiler flocks in AL-Qadisiyah province, but there is no significant impact found concerning the relationship between infection rates and&nbsp; age of chickens or seasons of the year</h5> Tahseen A. AL- Saeedi, Najlaa O. H. AL- Jubury ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000