Escherichia coli strains as Major secondary bacterial pathogen isolated from an outbreak of swollen head syndrome in layers, in Al-Diwaniyah, Iraq

  • Abdullah O. Alhatami Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kufa, Iraq
  • Hussam Muhsen Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kufa, Iraq
  • Furkan Al-Araji Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq
  • Ismaeel Raheem Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kufa, Iraq
  • Hassan Ayad Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kufa, Iraq

Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the involvement of E. coli as a secondary pathogen in cases of Swollen Head infection and to detect drug susceptibility pattern of these isolates. This study was carried out on 20 chickens that were purchased from Al-Safaa Company from an outbreak of a sudden increase in mortality in layers farm and experienced clinical signs included difficult breath, coughing, rales, swollen of infraorbital and supraorbital sinuses, and conjunctivitis, as well as severe depression. The main gross lesions demonstrated among the infected chicken including gaseous exudate in the trachea, nasal passages, and sinuses. There was yellowish gaseous exudate on the air sacs, ovaries, and the peritoneum. The samples were inoculated on different bacteriological culture media, the isolates were identified by morphological, and biochemical tests, in which the result revealed that the major pathogens associated with the swollen head syndrome in layers were E.coli.  The majority of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (94.4%), Ampicillin (100%), Erythromycin (100%), azithromycin (100%), trimethoprim (88.9%), and levofloxacin (94.4%). Nonetheless, however majority of APEC isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin (72.3%). Moreover, all E.coli strains recovered in the current study showed multidrug-resistant to three or more different antibacterial classes. In conclusion, the present findings showed that MDR E. coli is prevalent SHS. The MDR E. coli is an alarming signal because these bacteria can transfer their MDR trait to potential human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the introduction of surveillance programs to monitor antimicrobial resistance strains is strongly recommended to protect human and animal health.

References

1-Zellen G. Swollen head - syndrome in broiler chicken. Can. Vet. J. (1988); 29:298.
2-Arabi S, Jafarpour M, Mirinargesi M, Asl SB, Naghshbandi R, Shabanpour M. Molecular Characterization of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Broilers Bred in Northern Iran. Global Veterinaria 10 (4): (2013); 382-386.
3-Rojas TCG, Maluta RP, Parizzi LP, Koenigkan LV, Yang J, Yu J, Pereira GAG, Dias da Silveira W. Genome sequences of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from Brazilian commercial poultry. Genome Announc. (2013); 1(2):e00110-13.
4-Johnson TJ, Siek KE, Johnson SJ, Nolan LK. DNA sequence of a ColV plasmid and prevalence of selected plasmid-encoded virulence genes among avian Escherichia coli strains. J Bacteriol. (2006), 188:745-758.
5-Dozois CM, Dho-Moulin M, Brée A, Fairbrother JM, Desautels C, Curtiss R III. Relationship between the tsh autotransporter and pathogenicity of avian Escherichia coli and localization and analysis of tsh genetic region. Infect Immun (2000); 68: 4145-4154.
6-Tivendale KA, Allen JL, Ginns CA, Crabb BS, and Browning, G F (2004). Association of iss and iucA, but not tsh, with plasmid-mediated virulence of avian pathogenic E. coli. Infect Immun 72: 6554-6560.
7-Mangiamele P, Nicholson B, Wannemuehler Y, Seemann T, Logue C M, Li G, Tivendale K A and Nolan, L K (2013). Complete genome sequence of the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain APEC O78. Genome Announc. 1(2):e00026-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00026-13.
8-Donlan RM, Costerton JW. Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. Clin Microbiol Rev. (2002); 15:167-193.
9-Oguttu JW, Veary CM, Picard JA. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry abattoir workers at risk and broilers on antimicrobials. J.S. Afr. Vet.Assoc. (2008); 79(4): 161-166.
10-Health Protection Agency (2007). Identification of enterobacteriaceae. National Standard Method BSOP ID 16 Issue 2.
11-Barrow GI, Feltham RKA. Cowan and Steel’s Manual for the identification of Medical Bacteria 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press. New York, USA, (1993).
12-Quinn PJ, Corter ME, Markey BK, Carter GR. Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Mosby-year book Europe limited, Lynton House, and London, (1994).
13-Danese PN, Pratt LA, Dove SL, Kolter R (2000) The outer membrane protein, antigen 43, mediates cell-to-cell interactions within Escherichia coli biofilms. Mol Microbiol (1994); 37, 424-432.
14-Kadurugamuwa JL, Sin L, Albert E, Yu J, Francis K, DeBoer M, Rubin M, Bellinger-Kawahara C. (2003) Direct continuous method for monitoring biofilm infection in a mouse model. Infect Immun 71, 882-890.
15-Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherri JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1966); 45: 493-496.
16-Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. (2011) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-First Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S21. Wayne, Pennsylvania.
17-Olarinmoye AO, Oladele OO, Adediji AA, Ntiwunka UG, Tayo GO. Antibiograms of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from commercial layers with colibacillosis in Southwest Nigeria. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. (2013); 9(4):317-325.
18-The poultrySite.com news, features, articles and diseases. Diseases of poultry/ Swollen Head syndrome by Dinev Ivan. Website: http://www.thepoultrysite.com/publications/6/diseases-of-poultry/197/swollen-head-syndrome/
19-Droual R, Woolcock PR. Swollen head syndrome associated with E. coli and infectious bronchitis virus in the Central Valley of California, Avian Pathology, (1994);23(4):733-742, DOI: 10.1080/03079459408419042
20-Arafat M, Osman K, Radwan I, Hassan H, Orabi A. Antibiogram formajor pathogens recovered from broilers swollen head syndrome. Journal of Global Biosciences, (2015);4 (7): 2952-2960.
21-Khan Saiqa I, Blumrosen, Gaddi, Vecchio, Daniela et. al. Eradication of multidrug-resistant pseudomonas biofilm with pulsed electric fields. Biotechnolgy Bioengineering, (2016); 113 (3):643-50
22-Mansour AO, Mohsen H, RaheemA. Antibacterial drug susceptibility pattern and PCR identification of Escherichia coli strains isolated from broiler chicks with yolk sac infection in Al-Najaf El-Ashraf, Iraq. Researches of Second conference of College of Veterinary Medicine, 12-13Jan 2014. Kufa journal for Veterinary medical Sciences: (2014); 149-157.
23-Amare A, Amin AH, Shiferaw A, Nazir A, Negussie H. Yolk Sac Infection (Omphalitis) in Kombolcha Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research (2013); 8 (1): 10-14.
24-Rahimi M. Antibioresistance Profile of Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Recovered from Broiler Chicken Farms with Colibacillosis in Kermanshah Province, Iran. Global Veterinaria (2013); 10 (4): 447-452.
25-Salehi TZ, Bonab SF. Antibiotic’s susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli strains isolated from chickens with colisepticemia in Tabriz Province, Iran. International Journal of Poultry Science, (2006); 5(7): 677-684.
26-Van den Bogaard AE, Stobberingh EE. Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics. Links between animals and humans. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, (2000); 14: 327-335. DOI: 10.1016/S0924- 8579(00)00145-X.
27-Van den Bogaard AE, London N, Driessen C, Stobberingh EE. Antibiotic resistance of fecal Escherichia coli in poultry farmers and poultry slaughterers. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2001); 47: 763-771.
28-Saidi B, Mafirakureva P, Mbanga J. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens with Colibacillosis in and Around Harare, Zimbabwe. Avian Diseases. (2013); 57 (1):152-154.
29-Salehi ZT. Antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from chickens. Ind. Vet. J. (2005); 82: 1329-1330.
30-WHO, “The Medical Impact of Antimicrobial Use in Food Animals”, WHO Meeting, Berlin, Germany, 13-17 October 1997, Vol. No. WHO/EMC/ZOO/97.4, 4-21, 1997.
Published
2018-06-28
How to Cite
ALHATAMI, Abdullah O. et al. Escherichia coli strains as Major secondary bacterial pathogen isolated from an outbreak of swollen head syndrome in layers, in Al-Diwaniyah, Iraq. Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, [S.l.], v. 17, n. 1, p. 81-88, june 2018. ISSN 2313-4429. Available at: <http://qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/481>. Date accessed: 10 dec. 2018. doi: https://doi.org/10.29079/vol17iss1art481.