Seroprevalence of bluetongue virus IgG-antibodies in cattle in some Iraqi Provinces, using of a competitive-ELISA

  • Ebtesam Thamer Jeaz Department of Biological Science / College of Education / University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq
  • Eman Nadir Auda Al-Rkabi Department of Mathematics, College of Education, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq


This study was performed to detect seroprevalence of BTV IgG-antibodies in apparently healthy cattle in four provinces in Iraq. An overall 468 serum samples were collected during a period of April / 2016 to May / 2017 and examined by using a competitive-ELISA. The total result revealed that 28.42% of cattle were seropositive for BTV infections. Highest seroprevalence was reported in provinces of Dhi-Qar (35.04%) and Al-Qadisiyah (30.77%), while, the lowest was in Babylon (23.08%) and Wasit (24.79%). Among breed, no statistical differences (P£0.05) were detected between pure-breed (33.8%) and cross-breed (32.67%), which appeared with a high rate for seroprevalence compared to indigenous-breed (18.49%), P>0.05. In addition, a significant increase in the prevalence of BTV-antibodies was showed in a cattle group of (>5) years (55.17%), followed by (>3-5) years (40.38%), and (1-3) years (7.61%) groups, (P>0.05). Regarding gender, females were testified, relatively, an exposure rate for BTV (30.03%) more than males (23.48%), (P>0.05).


1-Maan S, Rao S, Maan NS, Anthony SJ, Attoui H, Samuel AR, Mertens, PC. Rapid cDNA synthesis and sequencing techniques for the genetic study of bluetongue and other dsRNA viruses. Journal of virological methods, (2007); 143(2), 132-139.
2-Wang WS, Sun EC, Liu NH, Yang T, Xu QY, Qin YL, Zhang, CY. Monoclonal antibodies against VP7 of bluetongue virus. Hybridoma, (2012); 31(6), 469-472.
3-Khezri, M. Seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in sheep in Kurdistan province in west of Ian. IJAVMS, (2012); 6(3), 183-188.
4-Schulz C, Bréard E, Sailleau C, Jenckel M, Viarouge C, Vitour D, Beer, M. Bluetongue virus serotype 27: detection and characterization of two novel variants in Corsica, France. Journal of General Virology, (2016); 97(9), 2073-2083.
5-Muntean, P. The size of Culicoides population and identified species in correlation, elements for risk analize in bluetongue. Lucrari Stiintifice Medicina Veterinara, (2008); XLI (4), 449-459.
6-Kirkland PD, Melville LF, Hunt NT, Williams CF, Davis, RJ. Excretion of bluetongue virus in cattle semen: a feature of laboratory-adapted virus. Vet Ital, (2004). 40(4), 497-501.
7-Saegerman C, Bolkaerts B, Baricalla C, Raes M, Wiggers L, de Leeuw I, De Clercq, K. The impact of naturally-occurring, trans-placental bluetongue virus serotype-8 infection on reproductive performance in sheep. The Veterinary Journal, (2011); 187(1), 72-80.
8-Purse BV, Mellor PS, Rogers DJ, Samuel AR, Mertens PP, and Baylis, M. Climate change and the recent emergence of bluetongue in Europe. Nature Reviews Microbiology, (2005); 3(2), 171-181.
9-Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, Constable, PD. Bluetongue. Veterinary Medicine-A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and goats, 10th edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, (2007); 1299-1305.
10-Wilson AJ, Mellor, PS. Bluetongue in Europe: past, present and future. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, (2009); 364(1530), 2669-2681.
11-MacLachlan NJ, Osburn, BI. Impact of bluetongue virus infection on the international movement and trade of ruminants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, (2006); 228(9), 1346-1349.
12-Shlash KH, Abdul-Rasoul LM, Naji MM, Hussain, MH. A serological surveillance of bluetongue disease in sheep and goats in Iraq by using a competitive ELISA Technique. In Proceeding of the Eleventh Veterinary Scientific Conference (2012); (Vol. 89, p. 94).
13-Hamblin C. Bluetongue virus antigen and antibody detection, and the application of laboratory diagnostic techniques. Vet Ital, (2004); 40(4), 538-545.
14-Office International des Épizooties (OIE). Bluetongue. In Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. OIE, Paris, (2000); 153-167.
15-Mecham JO, Wilson, WC. Antigen capture competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using baculovirus-expressed antigens for diagnosis of bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. Journal of clinical microbiology, (2004);42(2), 518-523.
16-Yilmaz V, Yildirim Y, Otlu, S. The Seroprevalance of Bluetongue Virus Infectıon in Cattle in the Kars Dıstrıct of Turkey. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, (2012); 67, 4.
17-Schwartz-Cornil I, Mertens PP, Contreras V, Pascale F, Bréard E, Zientara, S. Bluetongue virus: virology, pathogenesis and immunity. Veterinary research, (2008); 39(5), 1-16.
18-Petrie A, Watson, P. Statistics for Veterinary and Animal Science, Second Edition. Ames: Blackwell Publishing, (2006); Pp: 12-43.
19-El-Bagoury GF, Moneer, A. Prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus in small and large ruminants at different provinces of Egypt. Benha Vet Med Journal, (2013); 25 (1):100 -105.
20-Yousef MR, Al-Eesa AA, Al-Blowi, MH. High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Camel in different districts of Saudi Arabia. Veterinary World, (2012); 5(7): 389-393.
21-Khair HO, Adam IA, Bushara SB, Eltom KH, Musa NO, Aradaib, IE. Prevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies and associated risk factors among cattle in East Darfur State, Western Sudan. Irish veterinary journal, (2014); 67(1), 4.
22-Gür, S. A serologic investigation of blue tongue virus (BTV) in cattle, sheep and gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa in southeastern Turkey. Tropical animal health and production, (2008); 40(3), 217-221.
23-Gonzalez MC, Perez N, Siger J. Serologic evidence of bluetongue virus in bovines from Aragua State, Venezuela. Rev. Fac. Cs Vets UCV, (2000); 41 (1-3), 3-12.
24-Lager IA. Bluetongue virus in South America: overview of viruses, vectors, surveillance and unique features. Vet. ital, (2004); 40(3), 89-93.
25-Wittmann EJ, Baylis, M. Climate change: effects on Culicoides-transmitted viruses and implications for the UK. The Veterinary Journal, (2000); 160(2), 107-117.
26-Purse BV, Brown HE, Harrup L, Mertens PP, Rogers DJ. Invasion of bluetongue and other Orbivirus infections into Europe: the role of biological and climatic processes. Rev Sci Tech, (2008); 27(2), 427-442.
27-Lundervold M, Milner-Gulland EJ, O’callaghan CJ, Hamblin, C. First evidence of bluetongue virus in Kazakhstan. Veterinary microbiology, (2003); 92(3), 281-287.
28-Bonneau KR, DeMaula CD, Mullens BA, MacLachlan, NJ. Duration of viraemia infectious to Culicoides sonorensis in bluetongue virus-infected cattle and sheep. Veterinary microbiology, (2002); 88(2), 115-125.
29-Noaman V, Shirvani E, Hosseini SM, Shahmoradied AH, Heidari MR, Raiszadeh H, Bahreyari, M. Serological surveillance of bluetongue virus in cattle in central Iran. Veterinaria italiana, (2013);49(2), 141-144.
30-Anthony SJ, Maan N, Maan S, Sutton G, Attoui H, Mertens, PC. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the core proteins VP1, VP3, VP4, VP6 and VP7 of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). Virus research, (2009); 145(2), 187-199.
31-Stewart M, Dovas CI, Chatzinasiou E, Athmaram TN, Papanastassopoulou M, Papadopoulos O, Roy P. Protective efficacy of Bluetongue virus-like and subvirus-like particles in sheep: presence of the serotype-specific VP2, independent of its geographic lineage, is essential for protection. Vaccine, (2012); 30(12), 2131-2139.
32-Toussaint JF, Vandenbussche F, Mast J, De Meester LO, Goris N, Van Dessel W, Sailleau C. Bluetongue in northern Europe. Vet. Rec, (2006); 159(327), 900.
33-Elbers AR, Backx A, Meroc E, Gerbier G, Staubach C, Hendrickx G, Mintiens, K. Field observations during the bluetongue serotype 8 epidemic in 2006: I. Detection of first outbreaks and clinical signs in sheep and cattle in Belgium, France and the Netherlands. Preventive veterinary medicine, (2008); 87(1), 21-30.
34-Mapletoft RJ, Hasler JF. Assisted reproductive technologies in cattle: a review. Revue Scientifique et Technique-Office International des Epizooties, (2005); 24(1), 393.
35-Martinelle L, Dal Pozzo F, Sarradin P, De Leeuw I, De Clercq K, Thys C, Saegerman C. Two alternative inocula to reproduce bluetongue virus serotype 8 disease in calves. Vaccine, (2011); 29(19), 3600-3609.
36-Aradaib IE, Erickson BR, Karsany MS, Khristova ML, Elageb RM, Mohamed ME, Nichol ST. Multiple Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains are associated with disease outbreaks in Sudan, 2008–2009. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, (2011); 5(5), e1159.
37-Mohammadi A, Tanzifi P, Nemati Y. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue disease and risk factors in small ruminants of Shiraz suburb, Fars province, Iran. Trop Biomed, (2012);29(4), 632-637.
38-Adam IA, Abdalla MA, Mohamed ME, Aradaib IE. Prevalence of bluetongue virus infection and associated risk factors among cattle in North Kordufan State, Western Sudan. BMC veterinary research, (2014);10(1), 94.
39-Mozaffari AA, Khalili M, and Yahyazadeh F. A serological investigation of bluetongue virus in cattle of south-east Iran. Vet. Ital, (2012);48(1), 41-44.
40-Burns BM, Fordyce G, Holroyd, RG. A review of factors that impact on the capacity of beef cattle females to conceive, maintain a pregnancy and wean a calf-Implications for reproductive efficiency in northern Australia. Animal Reproduction Science, (2010);122(1), 1-22.
41-Ojango JM, Pollott, GE. Genetics of milk yield and fertility traits in Holstein-Friesian cattle on large-scale Kenyan farms. Journal of Animal Science, (2001);79(7), 1742-1750.