Pharmaceutical allergy pattern for antibacterial of some specified species of bacterial which diagnosed by vitek-2 technology isolated from the infection of the yolk sac in the meat breeders in Al-Diwaniyah

  • Khilood Hamdan Fahed Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
  • Azhar Abdulsada Neamah Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.


For the first time in Iraq, the study was used electronic vitek-2 apparatus for detection some bacteria that were isolated from omphalitis cases of broiler chicks of meat breeders in AL-Diwaniyah city. Thirty swaps were taken from thirty of meat broiler chicks infected by yolk sac infection or omphalitis then the samples tested biochemical tests by use electronic vitek-2 apparatus after culture all the isolates on media. E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faceuim were recorded by our study from the samples with percentages (60%), (23.3%) and (16.6%) respectively; then the antibiotics sensitivity test has done for all the isolates where the antibiotics that have more effect were trimethoprim(TR)(5MG), Amikacin(AK)(30mg) and Tetracycline(TE)(30mg) respectively. E.coli was prevalent from other bacteria, the subject was required more studies about all aspects like pathological, molecular, and immunological


1-Azza A, EL-Sawah a, AL Hussien M, Dahshan a, Soad A, Nasef b, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass c, Nayel A, Id. Characterization of E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates associated with omphalitis in baby chicks. Journal of veterinary medical research (2016), 23 (1): 91-100.
2-Gordon RF, FTN. Jordon poultry disease, 2nd ED. Bailliere Tindall,London, UK, (1982): PP:60-62.
3-Rai MF, SA Khan, A Aslam, K Saeed. Yolk sac infection in chicken avian poult Boil. . Kufa Journal for Veterinary Medical Sciences Vol. (6) No. (2) 2015 02. Rev, (2005); 16: 87-93.
4-Yassin H, AGJ Velthuis, M Borjan, J Van Rilet. field study on broilers first week mortality. Poult. Sci., (2009); 88: 798-804.
5-Rahman MM, Rahman AZ, Islam MS Bacterial diseases of poultry prevailing in Bangladesh. Journal of Poultry Science (2007); 11-6.
6-Ulmer Franco, AM, Yolk Sac Infections in Broiler Chicks: Studies on Escherichia coli, Chick Acquired Immunity and Barn Microbiology. PhD thesis, University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, (2011); pp: 1-197.
7-Khan KA, SA Khan, A Aslam, M Rabbani, MY Tipu.Factors contributing to yolk retention in poultry: A review. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, (2004); 24(1): 46-50.
8-Barnes JH, Gross WB, Colibacillosis Calnek, BW Barnes, JH, Beard CW, Mac Dougald, RL Saif, YM. Diseases of Poultry. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, (1997); pp.131-141.
9-Kahn CM, S Line, SE Aiello. [The Merck Veterinary Manual. 9th Edn]. Merck and Co., Inc.,USA., (2008); pp: 2258-2259.
10-Rad M, Z Esmailneejad, G Keleidari. Identification of gram-positive bacteria involved in yolk sac infection. Abstract poster presentation at 11th International Conference on Poultry Disease (ICPD). Acta Veterinaria Scandinavia supplements, 1998-2003, (2003); pp: 1.
11-Awobajo OK,Ymakintan, AO Igbosanu, AA Mako, OT Olatokunbo. The mortality rate in the two breeds of broiler on breeding stage. World applied science journal 2(4) (2007);:304-308.
12-Anjum AD. Poultry disease. 5th Ed. vet. Ag publications, faisabbad, Pakistan, (1997); pp: 178-180.
13-Carter GR, Cole JR (1990). Diagnostic Procedures in Veterinary Bacteriology and Mycology. 5th Edition. Academic press, Inc. Diego , California.
14-Barrow GI, Felthem RKA (1993). Cowan and Steel, s Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University press. New York, USA.
15-Rene S, Hendriksen (2003).Global salm-surya global salmonella surveillance and laboratory support project of the world health organization laboratory protocols level 1 training course identification of Salmonella book 4th Ed.
16-David H, P (2009).Microbial identification using the BioMérieux VITEK®2 System. BioMérieux, Inc. Hazelwood, MO, USA.
17-Bauer JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1966);45: 493-496.
18-Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2011).Performance Standards for Antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Twenty first Informational Supplement. CLSI document M 100-S21. Wayne, Pennsylvania.
19-Terezinha K, Tânia A, Tardelli Mônica A, Midolli José A, Antonio J Piantino Ferreira.Occurrence of adhesin-encoding operons in Escherichia Coli isolated from breeders with salpingits and chicks with omphalitis. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology (2006); 37:140-143.
20-Ziad Khalaf Jalob, Waleed Hamed Farhan, Zaid Yassien Ibrahiem, Bariq Nazar Jumaa.Bacteriological And Pathological Study Of Omphalitis In Broiler Chicks Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences (2015);Vol. (6) No. (2).
21-Iqbal M, Shah IA, Ali A, Khan MA, Jan S. Prevalence and in vitro antibiogram of the bacteria associated with omphalitis in chicks. Pak. Vet. J., (2006); 26(2): 94-96.
22-Ahmed MS, A Sarker, MM Rahman. Prevalence of infectious diseases of broiler chickens in Gazipur district. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine, (2009); 7: 326-331.
23-Suha AH, HH Ali, RS Rizgar. Bacteriological and pathological study of yolk sac infection in broiler chicks in Sulaimani district. Kurdistan 1st Conference on Biological Science. The university of Dohuk. Journal of Dohuk University, (2008); 11: 48-55.
24-Buhr RJ, JK Northcutt, LJ Richardson, NA Cox, BD Fairchild. The incidence of unabsorbed Yolk Sacs in Broilers, Broiler Breeder Roosters, White Leghorn Hens and Athens-Canadian Randombred Control Broilers. Research Note. Poultry Science, (2006); 85: 1294-1297.
25-Kawalilak LT AM Ulmer-Franco, GM Fasenko. Impaired intestinal villi growth in broiler chicks with unhealed navels. Poult. Sci., (2010); 89: 82-87.
26-Eman Khalifa, Neven Atef Hamed, Abd El- Rahman Abd El-Mageed Abd El- Rahman.Escherichia coli as a causative agent in omphalitis in broiler chicks. Animal Health Research Journal Vol. 1 No. 3,(2013);pp. 26-35.
27-Ashraf A, Abd El- Tawab, Soad A, Nasef Fatma I, El- Hofy, Ola A Ibrahim. .Prevalence of eaeA and qacEΔ1 genes in Escherichia coli isolated from omphalitis In baby chicks. Benha veterinary medical journal,(2017);Vol. 32, No. 1: 184- 192.
28-Abadi Amare, Ali Mohammed Amin, Ashenafi Shiferaw,Shahid Nazir, Haileleul Negussie.Yolk Sac Infection (Omphalitis) in Kombolcha Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research (2013);8 (1): 10-14.
29-Saif YM, AM Fadly, JR Glisson, LR McDougald, LK Nolan (2008) Diseases of Poultry. 12th Edn., Blackwell Publishing, London, pp: 703- 705. Sharada. R. Ci.
30-Knshnappa. R. Raghavan. R. N. S. Gouda and H. A. Upendra. (1999). Isolation and serotyping of Escherichia coli from different pathological conditions in poultry. Indian .1. Poultry. Sci., 34(3): 366-369.
31-White DG. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from commercial broilers in northeastern Georgia, Avian Dis., (2003); 47: 203-210.
32-Orajaka LJ, Mohan K. Aerobic bacterial flora from dead-in-shell chicken embryos from Nigeria, Avian Dis., (1985);29: 583-9.
33-Khalil SA, Einas El-Shamy. Aerobic Bacteria Associated with Omphalitis of Chicks. J. VET. Science (2012); Vol. 37 No.1: (69-77).
34-Mohammad Nabil, Amir Zoorafkan, Hamidreza Hakkakifard. Determination of antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from infected yolk sac in broiler chicks farms around Tabriz city east Azerbaijan of Iran .IJBPAS, (2015); 4(4): 1815-1820.
35-Ernst RA, (1975). Hatchery and egg sanitation. Planned Disease Prevention. Cooperative Extension Leaflet 2629. The university of California.
36-Agabou A. Airborne bacterial contaminations in two broiler hatcheries in the Northeast of Algeria . Veterinary World, (2009); Vol.2 (2): 49-50.
37-S Nasrin, MA Islam, M Khatun, L Akhter, S Sultana. Characterization of bacteria associated with omphalitis in chicks. The Bangladesh Veterinarian (2012); 29(2): 63-68.
38-Ashraf HM, Hussein Ibrahim AI, Ghanem Amal, AM Eid, Mohamed A Ali, Julie S Sherwood, Ganwu Li, Lisa K Nolan, and Catherine M Logue. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolated from Broiler Chicken Flocks in Egypt. American Association of Avian Pathologists Avian Diseases, (2013); 57(3):602-611.
39-FU Peer, MM Ansari, IA Gani, MM Willayat. Serotyping and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Escherichia coli isolate obtained from broiler chicks in Kashmir Valley, India Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. (2013); 1 (2): 75-76.