A comparative study among using of Ketamine, Tramadol, and Paracetamol in three injectable anesthetic protocols for induction of general anesthesia in sheep

  • Ali Ismail Jassim Dept. of Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq
  • Thaier Alwan Abid Dept. of Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq


 The study was designed to compare the efficacy of using three injectable drugs; Ketamine, Paracetamol, and Tramadol in three anesthetic protocols. Fifteen apparently healthy adult sheep of either sex weighing (25-30 kg) were utilized, and divided into three equal groups; G1; (K4P10) was given Ketamine 4mg/kg B.W + Paracetamol 10mg/kg B.W, G2; (K4T2) was given Ketamine 4mg/kg B.W + Tramadol 2mg/kg B.W, and G3; (K4T2P10) was given Ketamine 4mg/kg B.W + Tramadol 2mg/kg + Paracetamol 10mg/kg B.W. Drugs were given to the animal by IV injection for creating induction of anesthesia. The induction time, length of surgical anesthesia, recovery time, and degree of analgesia, degree of muscle relaxation, respiratory rate, heart rate and rectal temperature were recorded at 5 minutes before injection of drugs and consider as control readings. Readings were repeated at 5, 10, and 15 minutes after administration of anesthetic drugs. Results were displayed that anesthesia with (K4T2P10) protocol was better compared with the two other protocols as it produced reliable surgical anesthesia, good analgesia, muscle relaxation and short recovery time.


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