Detection of cholecystokinin and glucagon like peptide in small intestine of Awassi sheep

  • Huda Shadhan Awadha and Eman Fasial Abdall Hassan Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.


The enter endocrine cells in small intestine of sheep secreting some hormones that play key roles in regulation of certain important organs. The endocrine cells of GIT are generally divided into two types, the open and close type.The aim of this study was unveil the relative frequency and regional distribution of enteroendocrine cells in some portions of small intestine of the Awassi sheep, detecting by using immunohistochemistry techniques. Specimens of small intestine from ten of both sexes with different ages of sheep Ovis aries were used. The Immunohistochemistry technique formed using two types of hormones cholecystokinin (CCK-8) and glucagon like peptide (GLP-1). Result of immune detection findings demonstrated that in part of small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) there is clearly expression of the CCK-8 and GLP-1 subset of cells along the ‎villus and crypts. The cells are contained gut hormones appeared to be either triangular or flask-like in shape. I-cell  which contain CCK-8 increase proximally of small intestine and decrease caudally, while L-cell which contain GLP-1 decrease proximally but increase caudally of small intestine.


1-United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Sheep and Goat Production Handbook for Ethiopia, Nutrition and Feeding of Sheep and Goats, USA (2008); P p:(1-20).
2-Gatenby RM, Trail JCM. Small ruminant breed productivity Africa. International Livestock Centre for Africa, (1982); Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
3-Dyce KM, Sack WO, Wensing CJG. Textbook of veterinary anatomy.4thed.The abdomen of the horse and ruminants, W.B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia, (2010);Pp: 554 - 694.
4-Getty R. The anatomy of domestic animals, 5th ed. Philadelphia USA., (1975). Pp:599, 903- 904 .
5-Cebra CK, Watrous BJ, Cebra ML. Transabdominal ultrasonographic appearance of the gastrointestinal viscera of healthy llamas and alpacas. Vet. Rad. Ultra j. (2002); 43 (4):359-366.
6-Kumar P, Kumar P, Singh G, Poonia A. Histological Architecture and Histochemistry of Duodenum of the Sheep (Ovis aries)‎ Indian Veterinary Anatomy J., (2013); 25 (1):30-32.
7-Althnaian TA, Alkhodair KM, Albokhadaim IF, Ali AM, Homeida AM, El Bahr SM. Histological and Histochemical Investigation on Duodenum of Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius),Science Internationa J., (2013);1(6):217-221.
8-Eerdunchaolu DVM, K Takehana, A Kobayashi, J Yamada, ‎H Ueda, et al. Immunohisto-chemical study of the distribution ‎of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the camel (Camelus ‎bactrianus). Eur. J. Morphol., (2001); 39: 57-63.‎
9-Schonhoff SE, Giel-Moloney M, Andrew B. Minireview: Development and Differentiation of Gut Endocrine Cells, Endocrinology J., (2004); 145 (6): (2639-2644).
10-Beehler-Evans R, Micchelli CR. Generation of enteroendocrine cell diversity in mid gut stem cell lineages, Development J. (2015); 142, (654-664).
11-Ahlman H, Nilsson O. The gut as the largest endocrine organ in the body, Ann. Oncol.J., (2001); 12:(63-68).
12-Gordon WM, Fiona CL, Scott EL, John TL. Enteroendocrine cells, Neglected players in gastrointestinal disorders, Therapeutic Advances in GastroenterologyJ., (2008);1(1):(51-60).
13-Mellitzer G, Gradwohl G. Enteroendocrine cells and lipid absorption, Current Opinion in Lipidology J., (2011);22:(171–175).
14-Beehler-Evans R, Micchelli CR. Generation of enteroendocrine cell diversity in mid gut stems cell lineages, Development J. (2015);142, (654-664).
15-May C.L, Kaestner KH. Gut endocrine cell development, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. J., (2010); 323:70-75.
16-Sykaras AG, Demenis C, Maynard CR, McLaughlin JT, Smith CP. Duodenal Enteroendocrine I-Cells Contain mRNA Transcripts Encoding Key Endocannabinoid and Fatty Acid Receptors, (2012); PLOS ONE www.plosone. Org 7(8):(1-10).
17-Thomas RP, Hellmich MR, Townsend CJ, Evers BM. Role of gastrointestinal hormones in the proliferation of normal,Today. j. (2003); 19:414-421.
18-Rehfeld JF, Friis-Hansen L, Goetze JP, Hansen TV. The biology of cholecystokinin and gastrin peptides. Curr Top Med Chem. (2007); 7:1154-1165.
19-Gunawardene AR, Corfe BM, Staton CA. Classification and functions of enteroendocrine cells of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Int, Path. J., (2011); 92:219-231
20-Jang HJ, Kokrashvili Z, Theodorakis MJ, Carlson OD, Kim BJ, Zhou J, Kim HH, Xu X, Chan SL, Juhaszova, M. Gut-expressed gustducin and taste receptors regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1. ProcNatlAcadSci USA.; (2007); 104(38):15069-15074.
21-Luna L. Manual of histological staining method the armed forced institute of pathology 3rd ed. American registry of pathology. New York. (1968); Pp.76-98.
22-Hansen CF, Vrang N, Sangild PT, Jelsing J. Novel insight into the distribution of L-cells in the rat intestinal tract. Am J Transl Res, (2013); 5(3):347-358.
23-Ali MA, Nyberg F, Chandranath SI, Dhanasekaran S, Tariq S, Petroianu G, HasanY, Adeghate A, Adem A. Distribution of neuroendocrine cells in the small and large intestines of the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Neuropeptides, (2007); 41: 293-299.
24-Ham TS. Regional distribution and relative frequency of gastrointestinal endocrine cells in large intestine of C57BL/6 mice, Vet. Sci. J. (2002); 3, 233–238.
25-Moran AW, Al-Rammahi MA, Arora DK, Batchelor DJ, Coulter EA, Ionescu C, Bravo D Shirazi-Beechey SP. Expression of Na+/glucose co transporter1(SGLT1) in the intestine of piglets weaned to different concen-trations of dietary carbohydrate. Br. Nutr. J. (2010); 104(5): 647-655.
26-Jang HJ, Kokrashvili Z, Theodorakis MJ, Carlson O‎D, Kim BJ, Zhou J, Kim HH, Xiangru x, Chan ic LS, ‎Juhaszova M, Bernier M, Mosinger B, Margolskee RF, Egan JM. Gut-expressed gustducin and taste receptors ‎regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1, National Academy of ‎Sciences of the USA, Medical Science J. (2007);104 (38):15069-15074.
27-Daly K, Al-Rammahi M, Arora DK, Moran AW, Proudman CJ, Ninomiya Y, Shirazi-Beechey SP. Expression of sweet receptor components in equine small intestine: relevance to intestinal glucose transport .Am. Physiol. Regul. Integr Comp. Physiol. J., (2012);303(2).
28-Donovan MJ, Paulino G, Raybould HE. CCK1 receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet, Physiol. Behav. J., (2007); 92(5): 969–974.
29-Calingasan NY, Kitamura N, Yamada J, Yamashita TL. Immunocytochemical Study of the Gastroenteropancreatic Endocrine Cells of the Sheep, Acta. Anatomica. J., (1984); 118(3):171-180.
30-Rindi G, Leiter AB, Kopin AS, Bordi C, Solcia E. The “normal” endocrine cell of the gut: changing concepts and new evidences. Ann. NY. Acad.Sci J., (2004); 1014:1-12.
31-Field BC, Chaudhri OB, Bloom SR. Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity, Nat. Rev. Endocrino. J., (2010); 6:444-453.
32-Guilloteau1 P, Meuth-Metzinger VL, Morisset J, Zabielski R. Gastrin, cholecystokinin and gastrointestinal tract functions in mammals Nutrition Research Reviews , (2006); 19:254-283.
33-Walsh JH. Gastrin In gut peptides. New York, (1994); Pp.75-122.
34-Lucini C, De Girolamo P, Coppola L, Paino G, Castaldol L. Postnatal development of intestinal endocrine cell populations in the water buffalo. Anat. J., (1999);195 (pt. 3), 439-446.
35-Sjolund K, Sanden G, Hakanson R, Sundler F. Endocrine cells in human intestine: an immunocytochemical study. Gastroenterology j., (1983); 85:1120-1130.
36-Calingasan NY, Kitamura N, Yamada J, Yamashita TL. Immunocytochemical Study of the Gastroenteropancreatic Endocrine Cells of the Sheep, Acta. Anatomica. J., (1984); 118 (3):171-180.
37-Wathuta EM. The distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like, substance P-like and bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the digestive system of the sheep. Q. Exp. Physiol. J. (1986); 71:615-631.
38-Keast JR, Furness JB, Costa M. Origins of peptide and norepinephrine nerves in the mucosa of the guinea pig, Gastroenterology j. (1984); 86, 637-644.
39-Moran AWMA, Al-Rammahi M, Arora DJ, Batchelor EA, Coulter K, Daly C, Ionescu D, Bravo SP, Shirazi-Beechey. Expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is enhanced by supplementation of the diet of weaning piglets with artificial sweeteners. Br. J. Nutr. (2010); 104:637-646.
40-Moran AW, Al-Rammahi M, Zhang C, Bravo D, Calsamiglia S, Shirazi-Beechey SP. Sweet taste receptor expression in ruminant intestine and its activation by artificial sweeteners to regulate glucose absorption. J Dairy Sci.; (2014); 97(8):4955-4972.
41-AL Rehabi FS, AL Rammahi M. Distribution of Enteroendocrine Cells in the Small Intestine of the One Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius), Intern. Adva. Res. J., (2014); 2(9):384-391
42-Damholt AB, Kofod H, Buchan AM. Immunocytochemical evidence for a paracrine interaction between GIP and GLP-1 producing cells in canine small intestine, Cell Tissue Res. j. (1999); 298, 287–293.
43-AL-bdyry SR, Alrammahi MA. Frequency and distribution of the enteroendocrine cells in small and large intestine of one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius), AL-Qadisiya. Med. Vet. Sci. J. (2016); 15(1):152-159.
44-Hsieh J, Longuet C, Maida A. Glucagon-like peptide-2 increases intestinal lipid absorption and chylomicron production via CD 36. Gastroenterology; (2009); 137:997-1005.
45-Grigoryan M, Kdees MH, Guz Y, Teitelman G. Phenotype of enteroendocraine L-cells becomes restricted during development, Development Dynamics J. (2012); 241:1986-1992.
46-Agungpriyono S, Yamada J, Kitamura N, Yamamoto Y, Said N, Sigit K, Yamashita T. Immunocytochemical study of the distribution of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus). Acta. Anat. J. (1994); 151:232-238.
47-Eerdunchaolu DVM, K Takehana, A Kobayashi, J Yamada, ‎H Ueda et al. Immunohistochemical study of the distribution ‎of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the camel (Camelus ‎bactrianus). Eur. J. Morphol., (2001); 39: 57-63.‎
How to Cite
EMAN FASIAL ABDALL HASSAN, Huda Shadhan Awadha and. Detection of cholecystokinin and glucagon like peptide in small intestine of Awassi sheep. AL-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, [S.l.], v. 16, n. 1, p. 24-31, nov. 2017. ISSN 2313-4429. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 sep. 2018. doi: